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December 2012

  • 27th - South Norwood Lake (early pm): 1 Buff-tailed Bumblebee worker feeding on Mahonia bush (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 15th - Pittville Gardens, South Norwood (3.45pm): totally unexpected Pipistrelle bat (probably Common Pip) circling at tree level in back garden (8°C) (should be in hibernation!) (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 11th - South Norwood Lake (am): 2 queen & 1 worker Buff-tailed Bumblebees foraging on lake-side Mahonia bush at barely above-freezing temperatures (GH/JW)
  • 5th - South Norwood Lake (am): very fresh-looking queen Buff-tailed bumblebee collecting pollen from flowering Mahonia in spite of snowy conditions (2°C) (GH/JW)
  • 3rd - South Norwood Lake (am): Buff-tailed queen & worker bumblebee on flowering Mahonia shrub (GH/JW)

November 2012

  • 29th - South Norwood Lake (am): Queen Carder Bumblebee (Bombus pascuorum) feeding on flowering lakeside Mahonia shrub (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 13th - Pittville Gardens, South Norwood (late am): very fresh-looking & active Queen Buff-tailed Bumblebee (GH)
  • 6th - Pittville Gardens, South Norwood (4.25pm): very active & visible Common Pipistrelle bat circling/feeding low over the garden for at least 20 mins (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 1st - South Norwood Lake (am): unexpectedly late record of the Hoverfly Myathropa florea (no vernacular name!) "sunbathing" on bramble leaf (GH/JW)

October 2012

  • 27th - South Norwood Lake (am): 5 "Marmalade" & 4 Syrphus ribesii male hoverflies, plus 1 male Carder Bumblebee (GH/JW)
  • 25th - South Norwood Lake (am): 2 juv Nursery Web (Pisaura mirabilis) spiders (GH)
  • 17th - Warminster/Avenue Road, South Norwood (am): Red Admiral circling area (GH/JW)
  • 15th - Warminster Road, South Norwood (am): Red Admiral flying through (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 10th - South Norwood Lake & Lancaster Road, SE25 (am): single Red Admiral flying through at both sites (GH/JW)
  • 10th - Riddlesdown: 2 Roe deer in open by path at 09:30 - buck and doe. (JB)
  • 6th - Park Hill: 1 Badger feeding on scraps in Park Rangers yard (Ernie Thomason)
  • 8th - Millers Pond: smallest bat spp flying around possible Pip (Ernie Thomason)
  • 9th - Park Hill : Pair of Badgers feeding on seeds left for birds in Park Rsngers Yard very approchable (Photos taken) (Ernie Thomason)

September 2012

  • 30th - Pittville Gardens, South Norwood (am): Red Admiral straight through SW, plus 2 Small Whites (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 25th - Pittville Gardens, South Norwood (pm): Red Admiral flitting around sycamore in my garden (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 25th - South Norwood Lake (10am): 2 Red Admirals speeding SW through the trees; Long-winged Conehead bush crickets still "singing" (GH/JW)
  • 20th - Riddlesdown: one red admiral - only butterfly seen there in an hour and a half. (JB)
  • 9th - South Norwood Lake (am): 6 Small Whites, 1 Green-veined White, 1 Large White, 2 Commas, 3 Red Admirals, <12 Speckled Woods, plus larvae of The Cinnabar moth on Common Ragwort (GH/JW)
  • 8th - Sanderstead: Holly blue in Briton Hill Road. (JB)
  • 6th - South Norwood Lake (10am): 2 Small Whites, 1 Purple Hairstreak, 1 Comma, 2 Red Admirals & <12 Speckled Woods (GH/JW)
  • 5th - South Norwood Lake (early pm): good variety (<10 species) of Hoverfly, incl 2 'awesome' female Volucella zonaria (the 'Hornet' hoverfly) feeding together (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 5th - Norwood Junction Station, Pittville Gardens & South Norwood Lake (am): single Red Admiral at each location, plus 25 Speckled Woods, 6 Small Whites, 3 Large Whites and 1 Meadow Brown at the Lake (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 4th - Sanderstead: Migrant hawker dragonfly in Briton Hill Road. (JB)
  • 2nd - Belvedere Road, SE19 (borough boundary with Bromley)(pm): Jersey Tiger (orange variety) (Gavin Hawgood)

August 2012

  • 31st - South Norwood Lake area (10am): at least 30 Speckled Woods, 1 Red Admiral, 3 Small Whites, 1 Holly Blue & 3 Meadow Browns (GH/JW)
  • 30th - Pittville Gardens, South Norwood (12pm): 2 Jersey Tigers (orange variety) flying around the garden (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 29th - South Norwood Lake area (10 - 11.30am): 3 Small Whites, 1 Purple Hairstreak, 3 Gatekeepers, <20 Speckled Woods, 5 Meadow Browns, 2 Red Admirals, plus several larva of the Cinnabar moth (GH/JW)
  • 24th - South Norwood Lake area (10am): 1 Jersey Tiger (orange variety), Tree Bumblebee (queen) and Volucella inanis, Volucella bombylans and Myathropa florea hoverflies (no english names unfortunately!) (GH/JW)
  • 22nd - Fryston Ave.Bat Poss.Pipistrelle.(P Phillips)
  • 23rd - South Norwood Lake area (10am): 3 Small White, 3 Purple Hairstreak, 1 Holly Blue, 1 Gatekeeper, 20+ Speckled Wood & 1 Red Admiral (22nd) butterflies (GH/JW)
  • 21st - South Norwood Lake area (10.15am): probable male The Vapourer moth flying at speed along woodland edge (GH/JW)
  • 18th - South Norwood Country Park (Pitch & Putt course): Honey Bees nest in Poplar Tree, Large White, Comma, Red Admiral Butterflies.(Ernie Thomason)
  • 17th - Heathfield Car park: Possible Hawker/Emperor Dragonfly Spp (Ernie Thomason)
  • 17th - Park Hill (Park Rangers Yard) Jersey Tiger (orange) again flew past & Possible Hawker/Emperor Dragonfly Spp (Ernie Thomason)
  • 16th - South Norwood Country Park: Jersey Moth (orange), Large White, Emperor Dragonfly (JAH)
  • 15th - Park Hill (Park Rangers Yard): 1 Jersey Tiger (orange variety) on Virgina creeper on walled garden (Ernie Thomason)
  • 15th - South Norwood Lake: (09:40hrs) 2 Jersey Tiger, (orange variety) c20 Gate Keeper 2 Common Darter (John Watson)
  • 15th - Warminster Road SE25,(08:45hrs) 2 Jersey Tiger (orange variety) (John Watson)
  • 13th - Goat House Bridge area, South Norwood (early pm): 3 separate Jersey Tigers (orange variety) "flushed" in space of 5 mins' walking (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 12th - Park Hill (Park Rangers Yard): 1 Jersey Tiger flushed (Ernie Thomason)
  • 10th - Pittville Gardens, South Norwood (10am): Group of 5 Jersey Tigers (all orange variety) flying around/settling in the back garden (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 6th - Warminster Road SE25,(08:50hrs) Jersey Tiger (orange variety) (John Watson)
  • 4th - Stambourne Woodland Walk, Upper Norwood (am): 2 male Tree Bees B. hypnorum (a new-to-Britain species) feeding on bramble, plus Carder & Buff-tailed b/bees (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 3rd - Lloyd Park,Pond,Common Darter,Broad-bodied Chaser,Emperor Dragonfly.(P Phillips)
  • 3rd - Whitehorse Meadow, South Norwood (am): masses of Small, Green-veined & Large Whites, Gatekeepers & Meadow Browns, plus a sprinkling of Holly Blues (2), Small Skippers (2), Speckled Woods (1) & 6-spot Burnets (2); still no vanessid b/flies though (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 3rd - Pittville Gardens, South Norwood (early am): first 2012 Jersey Tiger (orange variety) for this neck of the woods (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 1st - Addiscombe :Badger crossing Fryston Ave 10pm (Ernie Thomason)

July 2012

  • 30th - Addington Hills (0745): Pair (or at any rate a couple) of Roe Deer disturbed "in cop". Having read recently in John Wyatt's classic "The Shining Levels" about the damage the stilletto-sharp antlers of a roebuck can inflict, I didn't linger when this little fellow, angry at being interrupted (who wouldn't be?!), spotted me standing 30m away and gave a few warning barks in my direction! (John Parish)
  • 30th - South Norwood Lake (am): Small White (2), Holly Blue (1), Small Copper (1), Speckled Wood (1), Gatekeeper (<20) & Meadow Brown (6) (GH/JW)
  • 29th - Selsdon Wood: Male Roe Deer crossed grass Car park before disappering along path towards 2nd field. (Ernie Thomason)
  • 29th - South Norwood Lake (am): Large Skipper (1m), Large White (1), Small White (3), Green-veined White (1), Purple Hairstreak (1), Comma (1), Red Admiral (1), Speckled Wood (8), Gatekeeper (<20) & Meadow Brown (5) (GH/JW)
  • 26th - Fryston Ave. Jersey Tiger Moth.Purple Hairstreak.(P Phillips)
  • 26th - The Ridgeway, Waddon: Holly Blue. (JB)
  • 26th - Pittville Gardens, South Norwood (3pm): single White-letter Hairstreak landed on a leaf of mature sycamore in back garden (excellent views through binoculars); also impressive nos. of Holly Blues, Common Blues and the 3 regular Whites. Marked absence of any of the vanessids, Skippers, Gatekeepers, Meadow Browns & Speckled Woods (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 25th - South Norwood Lake (9pm - 11pm): Noctule, Daubenton's, Common & Soprano pipistrelle bats recorded during this month's London Bat Group's Monthly Transect Survey (Meike Weiser, John Watson & Gavin Hawgood)
  • 22nd - South Norwood Lake:(am) 2 Purple Hairstreak 1 Gatekeeper,(John Watson)
  • 21st - Sanderstead (Briton Hill Road): 2-spot ladybird and broad bodied chaser. (JB)
  • 19th - Riddlesdown: 3+ Marbled Whites, good numbers of Ringlet and Meadow Brown, Gatekeeper, 1 Red admiral, 1 Speckled wood, 1 Small/Essex skipper. (JB)
  • 17th - Shirley Hills.new site for Marbled White (P Phillips)
  • 12th - South Norwood Country Park: 2 Ringlet (JAH)
  • 12th - South Norwood Lake (am): 2 Red Admiral, <10 Ringlet, 2 Large Skipper, 4 Meadow Brown, 1 Speckled Wood & 1 Small White butterflies (GH/JW)
  • 11th - Croydon Crematorium, Thornton Heath (early pm): the tiny "memorial pond" produced at least 5 Common, Azure (1pr ovipositing) & Blue-tailed damselflies in a 5-minute survey (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 11th - Croydon Crematorium area, Thornton Heath (late am/early pm): my 1st (of 2) annual WCBS butterfly count produced surprisingly good results (given the current ridiculous weather conditions!), incl 17 Ringlets, 2 Commas & 20+ Large/Small/Essex Skippers (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 10th - Whitehorse Meadow (late am): c30 Meadow Browns (mostly fem), 1 m Large Skipper & 1 Speckled Wood, plus pair of Common Blue damselflies in tandem/ovipositing and a cracking female Volucella zonaria, the largest UK hoverfly (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 8th - Millers Pond: Stag Beetle flying around main gate (Ernie Thomason)
  • 5th - Sanderstead Pond: Male emperor dragonfly (JB)
  • 5th - South Norwood Lake (am): 12 Ringlet, 1 Comma, 2 Large Skipper, 1 Meadow Brown butterflies, 1 Silver Y moth, 1 f Common Blue damselfly & lots of Meadow Grasshoppers (GH)
  • 1st - South Norwood Lake (am): 4 Ringlet, 1 m Large Skipper, 1 f Meadow Brown & 4 Speckled Wood butterflies (Gavin Hawgood / John Watson)

June 2012

  • 30th - Sanderstead (Briton Hill Road): 'blue' damselfly and large red damselfly in garden. Also an unidentified small bush cricket. (JB)
  • 28th - South Norwood Lake (am): 1 Ringlet, 3 Speckled Wood, 1 Large Skipper & 1 Small White butterfly, plus 1 male Common Blue damselfly (Gavin Hawgood / John Watson)
  • 27th - South Norwood CP: At least six terrapins basking in the sun. Several 'blue' damselflies. (JB)
  • 23rd - Addington Hills: Painted Lady (on dog faeces). (John Parish)
  • 23rd - Lloyd Park : Roe Deer (doe); Common Blue, Meadow Brown, Large Skipper; Pyramidal Orchid (at least 12 spikes in usual patch). (John Parish)
  • 22nd - Park Hill: One Badger walking along driveway up to Coombe Cliff House. (Ernie Thomason).
  • 21st - Park Hill: Poss Pipestelle Bat around Park rangers office. (Ernie Thomason).
  • 19th - South Norwood Lake (10am): 2 newly-emerged male Common Blue Damselflies (away from water), 1 male Large Skipper & 3 Speckled Wood butterflies and 1 male ("singing") Field Grasshopper (Gavin Hawgood / John Watson)
  • 19th - Sanderstead: 22-spot ladybird on teasel in garden, in company with a Harlequin ladybird and at least two Harlequin larvae. (JB)
  • 13th - Lloyd Park (am): one Roebuck flushed. In spite of the morning sunshine, a single Speckled Wood was the only butterfly seen. (John Parish)
  • 6th - Croydon Crematorium, Thornton Heath (11.30am): 3 Large Red and 10 Azure Damselflies (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 4th - Whitehorse Meadow, South Norwood (12pm): 2 Silver Y & 2 Burnet Companion moths and 1 Speckled Wood, 1 Large White & 3 Small White butterflies (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 1st - South Norwood Lake (early pm): 1 Lesser Stag Beetle & male Tree, Early, Buff-tailed & Carder bumblebees now appearing in reasonable numbers on flowering bramble (Gavin Hawgood)

May 2012

  • 30th - Pittville Gardens, South Norwood (5pm): totally unexpected mature male Beautiful Demoiselle (Calopteryx virgo) damselfly giving extended binocular views on my garden sycamore (Gavin Hawgood) (duly reported to British Dragonfly Society (BDS) & LNHS Recorder Neil Anderson)
  • 28th - South Norwood Lake (10am): 1 Red Admiral, c10 Speckled Wood & 2 Small White butterflies (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 28th - Addington Hills: Small Heath (c10). (John Parish)
  • 27th - Lloyd Park: a small colony of Dock Bug (Coreus marginatus)[a leatherbug sp]; also 16-spot Ladybird (Tytthaspis 16-punctata). (John Parish)
  • 27th - South Norwood Lake (1pm): 2 queen Southern Cuckoo (B. vestalis) & sev Tree (B. hypnorum) bumblebees, plus 2 teneral female Azure damselflies on blossoming bramble (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 27th - South Norwood Lake (10am): very fresh female Broad-bodied Chaser d'fly away from water on bramble (JW photo) (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 26th - South Norwood Lake (am): 1 Peacock, 1m 1f Orange Tip, 1 Sm White, 1 Holly Blue & 6 Speckled Wood butterflies (Gavin Hawgood / John Watson)
  • 25th - South Norwood Lake (10.30am): 1 Large White, 1 Red Admiral (both 2012 SNL firsts), plus 3 Holly Blue, 1m Orange Tip & 3 Speckled Woods (Gavin Hawgood / John Watson)
  • 24th - South Norwood Lake (12pm): my 1st sighting (anywhere) of 2-spot ladybird this year. Has anyone else seen examples of this increasingly rare ladybird? (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 24th - South Norwood Lake (12-1.30pm): 3 Sm White, 2 Holly Blue, 2m 1f Orange Tip & 1 f Brimstone, but NO Speckled Wood butterflies (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 24th - South Norwood Lake (12-1.30pm): monthly BCCT Bee Walk produced unexpectedly few queen/worker specimens of Buff-tailed, Large Red-tailed, White-tailed, Tree, Carder & Early Bumblebees (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 23rd - Millers Pond: Male Stag Beetle flying around Wochester Close entrance (Ernie Thomason)
  • 12th - Hutchinsons & Chapel Bank reserves (Ted's bird walk) : Common Lizard & 2 Slow Worms; Orange Tip, Brimstone, Green Hairstreak, Small Copper, Holly Blue, Common Blue, Peacock, Small Heath, Speckled Wood, Grizzled and Dingy Skippers. (John Parish)
  • 11th - South Norwood Lake (11am): 2 Speckled Wood & 1 m Orange Tip (JW photo); Tree (first this year) & Buff-tailed bumblebee workers feeding on Ceanothus (Gavin Hawgood & John Watson)
  • 10th - South Norwood Lake (am): Early & Buff-tailed Bumblebee workers on Ceanothus (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 8th - Lloyd Park (in pm sunshine): Small White, Orange Tip, Holly Blue, Peacock, Comma, Speckled Wood. (John Parish)
  • 3rd - Melville Avenue, South Croydon: Badger crossed road in front of our car and disappeared into a garden; the first I've seen here for a year or two. 9.45pm. (Alan Pearson)
  • 1st - Pittville Gardens, South Norwood (4pm): Red Fox vixen with 3 cubs basking in the late afternoon sunshine (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 1st - Pittville Gardens, South Norwood (pm): 4 Holly Blue & 1 Small White butterflies (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 1st - Queen's Road Cemetery, North Croydon (12.30pm): 1 Holly Blue, 2 Small White, 1 m Brimstone & 1 m Orange Tip butterflies (Gavin Hawgood)

April 2012

  • 30th - South Norwood Lake (10.30am): 2 fem Orange Tip, 3 Small White butterflies; several Large Red-tailed (worker), Carder & Buff-tailed (queen) Bumblebees (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 27th - South Norwood Lake (8 - 9.30pm): the annual public bat walk produced at least 7 species of bat, some in unbelievable numbers - definitely the place for bats in the Borough, if not south London itself (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 22nd - Pittville Gardens, South Norwood (am): 2 m Brimstone, 1 m Orange Tip, 5 Speckled Wood & 5 Small White butterflies in 15 mins viewing (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 20th - Whitehorse Meadow, South Norwood (10am): 7 Small White, 2m Orange Tip, 1 Holly Blue & 1 Speckled Wood butterflies (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 16th - Pittville Gardens, SE25 (8.30pm): Common (45kHz) Pipistrelle feeding in garden & rly embankment area (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 16th - South Norwood Lake (10am): 1m Orange Tip, 1 Holly Blue, plus Carder, Buff-tailed & Large Red-tailed Bumblebees (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 12th - Heavers Meadow, SE25 (4pm): 4 Speckled Wood (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 11th - Pittville Gardens, SE25 (pm): 1m/1f Orange Tip, 1 m Brimstone, 1 Holly Blue, 1 Small White (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 10th - South Norwood Lake (12pm): 2 m Orange Tips & 1 Speckled Wood (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 6th - South Norwood Lake (1pm): 4 Speckled Wood and 2 Small White butterflies, plus queen Large Red-tailed Bumblebee (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 3rd - South Norwood Lake (early pm): queen Carder, Large Red-tailed & Buff-tailed Bumblebees about, but no butterflies seen at all (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 2nd - Millers Ponds; Small bat flying around possible Pipstelle Spp (Ernest Thomason)
  • 2nd - Pittville Gardens, SE25 (am): 1 Holly Blue, 1 Green-veined White (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 2nd - Sanderstead (Briton Hill Road): Orange Tip, Holly Blue, Bee fly (JB)
  • 1st - Pittville Gardens, SE25 (pm): 1 Small White, 1 Comma & 1 Speckled Wood (Gavin Hawgood)

March 2012

  • 29th - South Norwood Country Park: Orange Tip, Small Tortoiseshell, Green-veined White, 2 Speckled Wood (JAH)
  • 29th - Sanderstead: Bee fly, plus various bee species in garden. (JB)
  • 29th - South Norwood Lake (late am): 3 Speckled Wood, 4 Peacock & 1 Small White butterflies, plus first sighting this year of Harlequin ladybirds (2) amongst many 7-spots (mostly on nettle) (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 28th - South Norwood CP - small white amd a 7-spot ladybird. (JB)
  • 28th - Brickfields Meadow: 2 speckled woods and a small white. (JB)
  • 28th - Pittville Gardens, SE25 (pm): Brimstone, Small White & Comma (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 28th - South Norwood Lake (10am): Speckled Wood (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 27th - Lloyd Park. Small Tortoiseshell Brimstone.(P Phillips)
  • 27th - Fryston Ave.Small White.Peacock.(P Phillips)
  • 26th - Fryston Ave. Brimstone,Holly Blue.Orange Tip.Speckled Wood.(P Phillips)
  • 23rd - South Norwood Lake: Brimstone,Peacock. (Ernie Thomason)
  • 23rd - South Norwood Country Park: Brimstone, Small White (JAH)
  • 22nd - Sanderstead: first Brimstone in the garden this year. (JB)
  • 21st - South Norwood Lake (11.30): stunning male Brimstone, so-called Marmalade (Hover)Fly, and Bombus sylvestris (Forest Cuckoo bumblebee) (unusually early for a cuckoo species) (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 21st - South Norwood Country Park: Holly Blue (JAH)
  • 20th - South Norwood Country Park: Speckled Wood (really early!) (JAH)
  • 20th - Pittville Gardens, SE25 (5.30pm): First Holly Blue of the year (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 20th - South Norwood Lake (12pm): Comma, first for year Large Red-tailed Bumblebee and Early Mining Bee Andrena haemorrhoa (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 19th - Whitehorse Meadows (12.15): Red Admiral, Bee Fly & queen Large Red-tailed Bumblebee (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 19th - South Norwood Lake (11am): 2 Commas, 1 Small White, Bee Fly Bombilius major and Carder Bee Bombus pascuorum (all 1st sighting for year) (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 18th - South Norwood Lake (late am): first for year fem Hairy-footed Flower bee Anthophora plumipes basking on leaf litter, and several queen Tree Bees Bombus hypnorum feeding on Goat Willow (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 15th - Sanderstead Plantation: Brimstone (JB)
  • 15th - South Norwood Country Park: Comma, Red Admiral (JAH)
  • 15th - South Norwood Lake (am): <10 queen Buff-tailed Bumblebees feeding on Goat Willow catkins (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 14th - Pittville Gardens, SE25 (2pm): Pine Ladybird in open porch area of house (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 12th - South Norwood Country Park: 2 Red Admirals (JAH)
  • 11th - Fryston Ave. Brimstone (P Phillips)
  • 11th - Lloyd Park Comma (P Phillips)
  • 11th - Lloyd Park: two weasels active among the beech trees at 07:30 (John Parish).

February 2012

  • no records

January 2012

  • 29th - Lloyd Park. Red Admiral (P Phillips)
  • 11th - Addington Hills: Wood Mouse scuttling around in leaf litter, Red Admiral on the wing at 10:30 (John Parish)
  • 9th - South Norwood Lake: Single small bat species posible Pip flying around near Bowling Green above path from 16:25 - 16:30hrs (Ernie Thomason)
  • 7th - Sanderstead Plantation: frsh molehills. (JB)
  • 7th - Kings Wood, Sanderstead: fresh molehills. (JB)
  • 2nd - South Norwood Lake (10.30am): extremely late/early? female Drone (Hover)Fly (Eristalis tenax) basking on dead leaf (5C max) (Gavin Hawgood)
  • 1st - South Norwood Lake (11am): several Buff-tailed Bumblebees feeding on lake-side mahonia (Gavin Hawgood)